types are the earliest forms of shophouses built by migrated Chinese in the Eighteenth century, generally near the tin mines. The purpose of these shophouses was to make availa-ble the commodities to the labour involved in the mines. The building skeleton was prominently wooden structures in the form of posts, beams and rafters . When this style of building was more widespread the names of the shops would be displayed running up and down the pillars. There are other types of shophouses in HK, such as those on Burrows and Mallory. In contrast, the authorities of early Hong Kong imposed little statutory control on the architecture of Chinese shophouses other than that under Buildings and Nuisance Ordinance of 1856, which regulated the use of the building by prohibiting trades that would cause nuisance because of smell or noise. Such trades were cited as brasier.
Chinese merchants would inscribe the name of their business in large Chinese characters on a wooden signboard over the door. 3.History Of Shophouses: The Sky well A sky well, or airwell, is a little patch of open space inside the shophouse for letting in light and ventilation Sep 11, 2015 - Explore Nanyang's board Shophouses on Pinterest. See more ideas about shop house, chinese house, terrace house Early Chinese immigrants to Singapore brought with them blueprints for their homes. The bamboo houses (houses with long and narrow floor plans) of Southern China evolved into the shophouses.
SHOPHOUSES. The joint inscription of Melaka and George Town, the Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 7 July 2008, was based on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of cultural diversity embodied and embedded in living heritage and built heritage. The OUV is a set of ideas or values which are universally. Shophouses in Singapore were built as early as the 1800s. They traditionally served as a home and place of business for a merchant and his family. The fundamental form of the shophouse was originally based on traditional Chinese houses in southern China, where the majority of Singapore's early immigrants were from
The prewar shophouses, largely built between 1840 and 1940, were categorised into three main groups - the Early Style (1840s-1900s), the Transitional Style (1890s-1910s) and the Late or Chinese Baroque Style (1910s-1930s). The Art Deco Style (1930s-1960s) and Early Modernism Style (1950s-1970s), on the other hand, dominated the designs of the. The Shophouse. Shophouses—a historical source of delight and nostalgia—are a prevalent building type in Singapore's architectural and built heritage. These buildings are generally two- to three- storeys high, built in contiguous blocks with common party walls. They are narrow, small terraced houses, with a sheltered 'five foot. Oct 26, 2018 - Explore tme.prc's board shophouse, followed by 238 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about architecture, house design, chinese house Shophouses in Joo Chiat Road. Our journey started with the famous heritage neighbourhood Joo Chiat in the east of Singapore. The Joo Chiat Road is named after a wealthy Chinese businessman of Peranakan descent Chew Joo Chiat who became the owner of most of the land near the road in the are early 20th-century
Think of Chinese porcelain-chip friezes and bat-wing shaped air vents co-existing with Malay timber fretwork, French windows, Portuguese shutters and Corinthian pilasters. The neighbourhoods of Clarke Quay, Joo Chiat/Katong, Chinatown, and Emerald Hill, just to name a few, boast many fine examples of the shophouses described above There are 10 Chinese shophouses in Singapore come with history. 1. EU YAN SANG (余仁生) Address: 267 to 271 South Bridge Road. Built-in 1910, this is the first Eu Yan Sang outlet in Singapore set up by Eu Tong Sen. Besides dealing in the retail of traditional Chinese medicine, it used to offer money remittance services to China Known locally as tong4 lau2 (唐樓, Chinese building), shophouses evolved to allow large extended families to run businesses out of their homes. They varied in form depending on local customs and building codes, but they all shared the same DNA, with architectural features like verandahs and porticoes to provide shelter from the sun and. mid-1920s, more shophouses were being constructed and rebuilt in the 1930s. In particular, along Amoy Street and Telok Ayer Streets, where the ﬁrst Chinese immigrants settled, shophouses were predominantly built in the 1930s, indicating a period of intensive demolishment and reconstruction of the area, replacing early shophouse typologies
The 'hood is home to shophouses known as Singapore Eclectic due to their kaleidoscopic animal and floral motifs as well as their popping blend of Chinese designs, Spanish glazed tiles, and Malay. More than preserving shophouses as a type of Disneyland of history through preservation alone, the shophouse offers lessons in how to make good space, and thus good cities. 2 Maarten den Teuling, Rebirth of the Malacca Shophouse (Master's thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2009.), 12 Traditional Chinese shophouses are a major historic building typology Received in revised form 24 February 2014 found in the old districts of Asian cities. In Hong Kong, the few remaining shophouses are generally dete- Accepted 27 February 2014 riorating and are increasingly under threat of demolition for urban renewal
Shophouses of this style are shorter and have one or two timber windows on the upper storey facade. The early builders made use of locally-sourced construction gold-painted Chinese characters and sometimes with English translations. Others have letterings and characters formed with moulded plaster on the outer face of columns, beams There is one place, where you can find Rococo style shophouses continuing to be built well into the 1930s is on the East Coast. The enclave of streets laid out between Joo Chiat Road and Still Road (Koon Seng Road, Everitt Road) contain many fine examples of late 1920s and 1930s terrace houses in a range of contemporary style : Neo-Classical, Peranakan, Rococo with a dash of Chinoiserie We have 377 of the best hotels near Chinese Shophouses ready for you to snag. It only feels like stealing, but trust us, it's totally above board. Cities near Chinese Shophouses. Ipoh Hotels (5.93 mi) Kuala Kangsar Hotels (15.37 mi) Taman Jubilee Hotels (0.76 mi). A conservation area in the center of Singapore, Emerald Hill is the former home of many wealthy Peranakans. This striking Limited Edition piece, featuring a stunning display of Chinese Baroque architecture - a mix of Malay, Chinese and European architectural details - gives a real sense of Singapore's heritage. Geylang Shophouses
Qing dynasty had attracted Chinese immigrants such that by 1900, 164,000 Chinese had settled in colonial Singapore, making up 80% of the population. The first generation shophouses constructed then were executed by Chinese builders, and the style, materials and methods were heavily Chinese, with Chinese elements making u Chinese Shophouse Row in George Town, on the island of Penang, Malaysia. The 'Early Straits' eclectic architectural style of this block of buildings signals that they were likely built between 1890 and 1910. Such shophouses began to appear in the Old Town district of George Town in the 1790's. Initially, they were built of woo In Chinese, Low Prices. Free UK Delivery on Eligible Order Chinese shophouses were built from the earliest days of Singapore's founding as a British trading settlement to serve the commercial and residential needs of Chinese immigrants who came in various waves. The first generation of shophouses built in the 19th century were simple two-storey structures designed for functionality with minimal ornamentation, reflecting the working class status of. Indeed, the distinctive Chinese shophouses in Phuket Town were designed for such cohabitation, with their multiple living spaces, and divide between the commercial shopfront and the private living space behind. Over the last few years, many of these shophouses have been converted into private homes or small hotels
Early Shophouses, Early Transitional Style, Early Eclecticism Shophouse, Sino-Anglo Bungalows, Neo-Classical Style, Art Deco Style, Early Modern Style, as well as numerous religious buildings such as mosques, churches, Chinese and Hindu temples . The herit-age site of George Town is divided into two zones, i.e. the core zone and the buffer zone The shophouses of Georgetown are a unique manifestation of overseas Chinese architecture. Combining Chinese designs and principles of feng shui with European building techniques, they really offer the best of both worlds. And in many ways, old Georgetown is more Chinese than China Shophouses started to be built in Penang 200 years ago. This unique type of structure clearly shows the influences of Chinese, Malay, Indian and European styles; matured and merged together in response to the local environment. From the Chinese influence the courtyard was introduced. The courtyard is an essential typological element in a shophouse - Similar to Southern Chinese Shophouse of 60m to 90m long building - Narrower width compare to Sourthern Chinese Shophouses -Fengshui adoption and similar in spatial planning with Southern. From the 18 beautifully preserved Chinese-Baroque styled shophouses, to the open alley where men can seek a quick fix, Petain Road further adds to its already intriguing character with its link to Hitler and World War II. Named in 1928 after Field Marshall Henri Philippe Petain, one of France's greatest military heroes from the Firs
These exquisite heritage shophouses, often pastel candy coloured and adorned with jewels of decorative plasterwork are an iconic part of the city. They sit in stark contrast against the modern glass and steel skyline so synonymous with the images many will recognise as Singapore Book your Chinese Shophouses, Ipoh holiday accommodation online from NZ$ 18 per night. Bookabach has a selection of 179 holiday homes, including houses, apartments & more. Ideal for families, groups & couples 'Against the backdrop of Hoi An's river and shophouses, it has a distinct charisma to itself.' 'On both sides of the streets were shophouses and a bank.' 'With its Chinese shophouses, colonial bungalows and Anglo-Indian mansions, the city has no peer among the region's ports.' 'Near the houses there were several shophouses.' Another pair of adjoining shophouses at 73 and 75 Neil Road was put up for sale by EOI conducted by CBRE on May 6, just a week before Singapore went into Phase Two (Heightened Alert). The three-storey conservation shophouses sit on a combined land area of 4,439 sq ft and gross floor area of 11,128 sq ft. They have a front courtyard of 825 sq ft The Chinese architecture style had dominated with small scaled family enterprises operated at shophouses. Colonial Period Due to the constraint of fire, flood, filthy condition and overcrowding in Malay Peninsular during 1881-1882, the government decided to rebuild the colonial town
former chinese shophouses, now restaurants, along singapore river boat quay, singapore, south-east asia - shophouses stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images kuching, capital of the state of sarawak is a bustling, diverse city of old colonial buildings and modern towers. along its sarawak river waterfront are shophouses selling handicrafts. I So shophouses were built as early as the 1800s as a place for both homes and businesses by a lot of Chinese business people. Mainly is for the merchant and his own family whereby the merchant will operate the business at the shop front and the family will live within the shophouse itself But never fear, dear traveller: Chinese Shophouses accommodation won't break the bank. With Wotif bringing you the best deals in travel, you can book accommodation near Chinese Shophouses without blowing your budget, and the money you'll save by snagging that central location at a cheap rate will pay you back in spades. Explore the neighbourhood The introduction of new non related architectural components into the southern Chinese (eclectic style) style in shophouses in George Town has resulted in the disappearance of this unique style of architecture. This investigation employs a qualitative research approach by documenting evidence and understanding the architectural as well as.
Colours in Chinese architecture are meaningful. While red, blue and green are considered auspicious, the Peranakan Chinese grew fond of green for their porcelain and architecture. Today's shophouses have been transformed, serving many purposes such as clan associations, coffeeshops, living spaces, boutique hotels and temples 'CHINESE LATTICE IN MONOCHROME' Limited Edition of 50 - printed in archival Giclee inks onto fine 310gsm German Hahnemuhle etching paper. Focusing on the architectural shapes found in Singapore's old shophouses and snapshots of street furniture, I added light fittings and rusty tin signs which all have beauty of their own.. Photo about Singapore - 23rd November 2016: Chinese heritage shophouses on Jalan Besar, Rochor. . Many shop houses have been restored. Image of heritage, restored, shop - 14480818 The look of old - narrow streets and alleys, two-storey shophouses, and red lanterns and banners overhead - still predominate in Chinatown, buffed to a gleaming sheen. Shoppers come to Chinatown today to spend Singapore dollars on antiques, Chinese cultural gewgaws, clothes, and (best of all) really affordable hawker food Cancel free on most hotels. Compare 103 hotels near Chinese Shophouses in Taman Istana using 3149 real guest reviews. Earn free nights, get our Price Guarantee & make booking easier with Hotels.com
A pair of adjoining freehold conservation shophouses with rare roof terrace within the Keong Saik enclave is up for sale at guide price of $30.8 million. The post Adjoining freehold conservation shophouses at Keong Saik enclave up for sale appeared first on iCompareLoan Chinatown: The Immigrant Chinese Experience . Chinatown was born out of Sir Stamford Raffles' policy of allocating a district to each ethnicity in Singapore - his 1828 town plan allocated the area south of the Singapore River to the island's immigrant Chinese, who built Chinatown's narrow streets and shophouses Descendants of the city's Straits-born Chinese left their mark, even if only traces remain today of a rich creole culture Peranakan shophouses in Singapore's Katong neighbourhood. Photo.
Colliers has been appointed as marketing agent for the sale of two conservation shophouses at 65/67 Neil Road in Tanjong Pagar at a combined asking price of S$15.6 million. Based on the total gross floor area of 5,564 square feet, the properties are expected to fetch S$2,800 per square foot. Read more>> Colliers has been appointed as marketing agent for a set of three freehold shophouses at 7. George Town in Penang, Malaysia is known for its British colonial buildings as well as Chinese shophouses. It was even granted a UNESCO Heritage status. If the old town is worthy of this award, I am sure Balestier can be considered too GEORGE TOWN (The Star/Asia News Network) - Penang's heritage property market is showing signs of overheating, with Singaporean investors snapping up shophouses by the rows and causing rentals to.
Gambier Court is a boutique development comprising 3 shophouses and 20 other units housed in a 10-storey tower. The shophouses of 62, 64, and 66 Kim Yam Road were acquired for just $7.7m back in 1996, albeit of a 99-year lease. The latest transaction was for 64 Kim Yam Road in January 2020 for $3.28m for 2,563 sqft ($1,278 psf) of built-up area Find the perfect Peranakan House stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Peranakan House of the highest quality Three shophouses in Tan Quee Lan Street, Haji Lane and Arab Street Are put on the Marketplace by PropNex Realty. The property is set to house about 700 units in two residential towers. Register to obtain Mori brochure. The gross plot ratio of 4.2 enables buyers to raise the floor area farther to approximately 4,629 [ Hi, I found your property listing on www.srx.com.sg and would like more information. Please send me more details. Thank you.
The brightly coloured and ornate shophouses in Singapore's older neighbourhoods are perhaps the most unique of the city's architectural styles. First introduced in the 1840s, the shophouse has evolved in style and structure over the centuries — but what has remained constant are the colourful walls and lavish tiles adorning their interiors Old Chinese shophouses (which are everywhere): Chinese style temple: Komtar. The Komtar building is the tallest, and possibly, the ugliest building in Georgetown. For a very small fee you can take the lift to the viewing deck at the top of the building. This was one of the worst tourist attractions I have ever been in Request PDF | Thermal Function of Internal Courtyards in Traditional Chinese Shophouses in Malaysia | This study aims to identify the thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional. The shophouses features were very much influenced by Southern China district adapted to local contexts and categorised as Southern China Eclectic Style (with refer Fig. 4). Then, the later design and development of the shophouses were influenced by European countries (with refer Fig.5, Fig.6) The combination of European neo-classical structures with Chinese and Malay decorative motifs transforms the buildings into icons for the city's multicultural heritage. Furthermore, this program encouraged the restoration of dilapidated and abandoned shophouses to be reused in new contemporary contexts
The Chinese influences are clearly seen in layout, facade and material use. Other Chinese elements characterised the shophouses, such as the design elements of covered walkway (our five-foot-way), courtyard (air well), ornaments and architectural elements like columns, windows, doors, etc Topology of Shophouses in Penang George Town World Heritage Inc. (26 July 2008) The Topology of Shophouses in Penang is a series of interpretive boards providing an interpretation of the various period styles of shophouses in George Town. These boards have previously been displayed at the George Town World Heritage Inc. office as well as at the Museum @ Macalister, and is presently (July 2014. Chinese musician Lay Zhang is Bang & Olufsen's newest global ambassador Entertainment Shophouses along Katong are located in the middle of a gentrifying food paradise, and shophouses in the Holland Village area have quick access to nightlife, retail, and dining In inner-city Kuala Lumpur the oldest shophouses can be found along what was High Street but is now called Jalan Tun H.S. Lee (jalan is the Malay word for road). The oldest examples date from the 1880s but the more common are the neoclassical buildings dating from the early 1900s. Their facades incorporate elements of Chinese, Malay, Indian and. . These bright and ornate two- to three-level buildings have shops on the lower levels and residencial floors above. Imagine working.
The specific focus of this study is the design characteristics of tiles on the facade of traditional Straits Chinese shophouses in Malacca in order to inculcate an appreciation of their origins and cultural and intrinsic values by conservation authorities, scholars and the general public (2014). Field Investigation of Indoor Thermal Environments in Traditional Chinese Shophouses with Courtyards in Malacca. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering: Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 247-254
Shophouses in all districts averaged $4,558 psf in September 2015, with prices appreciating to $4,980 psf by September 2020. This is a percentage increase of around 9.2 per cent, or an annualised. Section of a typical Chinese shophouse demonstrated by Tan . The Chinese shophouse is mainly two to three ﬂoors in height, with a certain typical interior layout . The shophouses are built along the street with an established uniform grid. The long rectangular ﬂoor plan of shophouses offers a narrow frontage
In Chinese culture, 4s signify death. When quoting a date or price, stay away from them, but 8s are lucky and desirable. So, don't schedule an open house for Jan. 4. Schedule it on Jan. 8. No. 44/45/46 Amoy Street. Directly opposite 77, 78 & 80 Amoy Street, is a row of 2 storey shophouses belonging to the same owner. We were engaged by the owner to carry out addition and alteration to the shophouses. The shophouses also belong to transitional shop-house style, with residential front at the 1st storey Chinese families mostly lived in the area of Chinatown. They lived in a overcrowded and in a stuffy state as Chinatown at that time faced overcrowding. Sir Stamford Raffles appropriated all of the land southwest of the Singapore river for the accommodation of the Chinese as the Chinese community was and still is the largest community in Singapore courtyards in traditional Chinese shophouses in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia, Building and Environment (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.11.005. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will underg
A shophouse is a vernacular architectural building type that is commonly seen in areas such as urban Southeast Asia. Shophouses are mostly two or three stories high, with a shop on the ground floor for mercantile activity and a residence above the shop. This hybrid building form characterises the historical centres of most towns and cities in the Southeast Asia region Kampong Days Exhibition Chinese Family In Kampong House Exhibition Classic Life . Pin By Peter Yeo On Singapore B4 History Of Singapore Singapore Photos Village . Traditional Peranakan Architecture Or Baba Nonya Style Shophouses In Kampong Glam In Singapore In Asia Stock Chinese Culture Art Travel Art Chinese Cultur Impressionist Chinese shophouses landscape painting art, an original acrylic artwork done plein air of the heritage architecture at Malaysia town of Kluang near its railway. 2018. Title: Shophouses Medium: Acrylic on Canvas Paper Dimensions: 12x16 (including thin white border, ready to frame, A3 size frame suitable) P.s. Image is copyrighted and may not be reproduced without permission. As. The shophouses in the area were originally 2 to 3 storeys high - coolies and working class families lived on the upper floors, and the ground floor units were used for shops and trading offices. During its glorious past, Clarke Quay was also an important location for Chinese opera performances and street storytelling sessions
'The Chinese,' Raffles wrote, 'will form by far the largest portion of the community' and he assigned the south-west of the Singapore River to them. Fro the sake of uniformity Raffles specified that the shophouses and houses be built in brick and tiled and each house should have a verandah or covered passage five feet wide to provide an. The wealthiest of these merchants and families built elaborate Sino-Portuguese-style mansions and shophouses in Phuket Town, the capital and largest town of Phuket province George Town in Penang, Malaysia is known for its British colonial buildings as well as Chinese shophouses. It was even granted a UNESCO Heritage status . If the old town is worthy of this award, I.
Situated southeast of Kuala Lumpur, Cheras is one of Malaysia's hottest real estate markets. The history of the district, which straddles both KL and Selangor, dates back to the early 1900s, when flourishing plantations and tin mines in the vicinity attracted groups of Hakka Chinese to move into the area. In the 1930s, two rows of 21 shophouses were constructed along the street that is now. Dalforce, or the Singapore Overseas Chinese Volunteer Army (星华义勇军) as it was more popularly known among the Chinese community, was a volunteer army created just before the fall of Singapore in February 1942. It was made up of some 1250 Chinese volunteers from all walks of life and political persuasions The iconic pastel shophouses were constructed in the 1920s and have been conserved for their beautiful historical design, which like the Peranakans (Straits-born people of Chinese and Malay/Indonesian heritage), is a unique mix of Chinese and Malay influences However, for the next 30 years, it operated as the KwangChow Sausage Factory, a pioneer in Chinese sausage manufacturing in Singapore. The factory, which was established in 1959, closed its doors in the late 1980s. URA gazetted the shophouses at Everton Road, Blair Road and Spottiswoode Park Road for conservation in October 1991 A historical source of delight and nostalgia, Shophouses are an instantly recognisable building style in Singapore. Their head-turning features, bold use of colour and fancy tiles, as well as the eclectic mix of Chinese, Malay and European elements, makes them favourite icons of both tourists and locals alike
In old areas of Singapore like Chinatown, Geylang and Little India, which are redolent of our colonial past, some shophouses and buildings have façades and other design details that make them stand out.Usually found at corners of buildings or at road junctions, these details are not only aesthetically appealing, but also served as navigation points at a time when many were illiterate The neighbouring Joo Chiat area is named after Chew Joo Chiat, a wealthy Chinese landowner in the early 20 th century. The area's identity is especially shaped by its unique pre-war architecture - colourful two-storey shophouses and terrace houses with ornate facades, intricate motifs and ceramic tiles. *The term is an Indonesian/Malay word. 3 Shophouses on Taweeratpakdee Road, Koh Samui TH - Surat Thani View listing. Office. Land with Building on Pracha Chuen Road TH - Bangkok View listing. Office. Shophouse in Charoen Krung 107 TH - Bangkok View listing. Office. Shophouse on Sukhumvit Road. Thus, in this study we considered the following research questions: (1) what role does urban renewal play in the adaptive reuse of traditional Chinese shophouses, and (2) what urban sustainability factors should be considered in the adaptive reuse of traditional Chinese shophouses in urban renewal districts The romantic appearance of shophouses lies in their architecture. Shophouses are often built in accordance to specific guidelines, which have barely changed over the years. They also employ a mix of Chinese, Malay, and Caucasian elements in their design, which gives them a rather vintage appearance that has endured through the ages
Charming Chinese Baroque shophouses located at Emerald Hill Road, a stone throw away from Orchard Road, Singapore. Downtown Singapore. Examples of typical colonial architecture. Beautifully preserved 18 Chinese-Baroque styled shophouses at Petain Road in Singapore.. Conservation shophouses in Joo Chiat on sale. The five units on a freehold residential site are on the market for S$21m, and are being sold by private treaty. Tue, Oct 27, 2020 - 5:50 AM. Fiona Lam firstname.lastname@example.org@FionaLamBT. The agent says the five units can be developed as a single entity, a co-living complex or serviced residences Kongsi houses/ clan houses - Chinese clan house built by Chinese migrants to the Malaya during the 19th or 20th century . Pre-war houses/ buildings / shophouses - buildings built before the second world war. Refers to mainly buildings built in the 19th century and early 20th century
Dihua Street Section 1 south of Taipei Bridge is the go-to place for all of your Lunar New Year shopping. This street is part of the historic Dadaocheng area, an early commercial and trading center of the city as far back as the late Qing period. In addition to New Year's supplies, there are a number of stores here selling tea, Chinese. 139 Figure 4.26: Taiping Clock tower (left); Taiping District Office (Middle) and Taiping Pre-war shophouses (Author,2014). There are 83 selected dominance Chinese old shophouses and clan association buildings and 17 unit civic buildings to be conserved by the Taiping Municipal Council (Taiping Municipal Council, 2010). Each heritage building in Taiping retains its distinctive character. By the 1930s, there was a mixture of large bungalows, shophouses and kampongs in this area. Adapted from CPDD (2015), Singapore: The Making of a Nation-State, 1300-1975, MOE, Singapore. Inference Source 1 tells me that the Straits-born Chinese stayed in the area of Katong because they liked how near it was to the sea Peranakan: A Colourful Cultural Collision in Singapore. by Madam ZoZo April 27, 2021. The Peranakan culture is a melding of Chinese and Malay/Indonesian traditions, creating an aesthetic that is eye-catching, colourful and exquisitely detailed. The Peranakan shophouses of Singapore stood out to me immediately when I arrived in Southeast Asia singapore, metal chinese lion door knockers - peranakan singapore stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. singapore, chinatown, keong saik road - peranakan singapore stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Shophouses are commonly seen in Southeast Asia, especially Penang, Malacca and Singapore. These shophouses or godowns are. Essentially, the adaptation saw the birth of shophouses that combined and fused diverse cultural hallmarks such as vernacular, Chinese, Malay, Indian and also European influences (SAP, 2016, pp. A4-21; Tan, 2015, p. 3), and shophouses eventually became one of the most prominent building form when Penang state was perceived to have the largest.