Blue body syndrome is caused due to mcq

2. 'Blue Body Syndrome' is caused due to_____ a) Soil pollution b) Nitrate pollution c) Carbon pollution d) Zinc pollution Answer: b Clarification: When excess nitrogenous fertilizers applied in fields it leach deep into the soil contaminating the ground water Excess of arsenic causes diarrhea, peripheral neuritis etc. Deficiency of iron in food causes anemia. Increased Methane content causes inspirational disorders and hypoxia. Excess of nitrates in drinking water causes blue baby syndrome due to conversion of ferrous forms of Hb into ferric form (methemoglobin) Intake of water contaminated with nitrates can cause the Blue Baby Syndrome or Methemoglobinemia. In Methemoglobinemia, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood decreases gradually. Nitrates after reaching inside the body converted into another form called as Nitrites. Nitrites then react with Haemoglobin and form Methemoglobin Blue Baby' syndrome is because of drinking water with excess amounts of- 1) Important MCQ on Related Subject. The patients nerves are damaged by polio. II. Tetanus is caused by virus. Cancer is more common in older people because- .

Blue baby syndrome, also known as infant methemoglobinemia, is a condition where a baby's skin turns blue. This occurs due to a decreased amount of hemoglobin in the baby's blood. Hemoglobin is a.. Q. Recently, the Blue Baby Syndrome or methemoglobinemia has been making news as an environmentally caused Children's health issue. In this disease, the infant's blood is unable to carry enough oxygen to body cells and tissue

Which is the most common cause of oesophageal perforation? Iatrogenic causes. Trauma. Boerhaave's syndrome. Foreign body. Tumour. Which is incorrect of swallowed foreign bodies? 80% occur in children. 97% of adults with distal meat impactions have pathological conditions so all need Barium swallow studies 1- This online MCQ practice test paper contains 30 questions. 2- Each question in this online practice test paper have four options and only 1 option is correct. 3- You can view the answers of this practice test paper after submitting the practice test paper. Note: The answers mentioned at the end of practice test are the best suitable option. Inflammation of the lymph nodes exerts traction on the wall of the esophagus leading to the formation of a true diverticulum in the midesophagus. Caused by inflamed mediastinal lymph nodes from tuberculosis, histoplasmosisQ and resultant fibrosing mediastinitis. Pathophysiology of scleroderma in GI tract

Human Body MCQs. 1. Which part of the human eye is transplanted from a dead donor to a living person - Cornea. 2. In the human body, nails are made up of - Keratin. 3. Sweating during exercise indicates operation of which process in the human body -Homeostasis. 4. Pituitary gland is situated in - The base of the brain 64. In a fire accident a body was found dead within 30 minutes from the start of fire. You can expect mechanism of death to be: (a). Rupture of Curling ulcer. (b). Pneumonia or broncho-pneumonia (c). Neurogenic shock (d). Hemoconcentratio

d) Wait till availability of blue light 3. Bronze baby syndrome results due to a) Phototherapy given in case of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia b) Phototherapy given in case of sepsis c) Phototherapy given in case of prematurity d) Phototherapy given for a long period 4. Bilirubin level is not falling, all may be the cause, EXCEP While a rare congenital heart defect, TOF is a primary cause of blue baby syndrome. It's actually a combination of four heart defects that can reduce blood flow to the lungs and allow oxygen-poor.. Doctors in a hospital here have successfully treated a 23-day-old infant diagnosed with an unusual case of blue baby syndrome caused by contaminated water 8. Blue baby syndrome is due to the presence of. a) excess sulphate in drinking water. b) excess chlorine in drinking water. c) excess heavy metals in drinking water. d) excess nitrates in drinking water. 9. Mercury poisoning in water is the reason for. a) Pellegra

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Clarification: Blue baby syndrome (methemoglobinemia) is a disease that is caused when the baby consumes drinking water which is rich in nitrates. It is caused when the maximum limit of nitrate in water, i.e. 50ppm, is crossed Methemoglobinemia Blue baby syndrome can also be caused by methemoglobinemia, either due to a hereditary or acquired condition. Congenital methemoglobinemia is typically caused by an inherited deficiency in the enzyme NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, which is responsible for reducing methemoglobin in the blood

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Blue Baby Syndrome or Methemoglobinemia is caused by decreased ability of blood to carry oxygen, resulting in oxygen deficiency in different body parts. Infants are more susceptible than adults. The disease can be caused by in­ take of water .and vegetables high in nitrate, exposure to chemicals containing nitrate, or can even be hereditary Lab Tests Guide (LTG) is an health information website designed to help patients and health care providers to understand the many lab tests and related diseases. This Website help to Lab Technisians, Technologists and other Clinical laboratory Staff and medical professionals to learn about Lab Tests, Diseases and other health resources Explore numerous NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 10 English Grammar Reading Comprehension Pdf free download is available online for students. By taking help from MCQ Questions for Class 10 English with Answers during preparation, score maximum marks in the exam. Try maintaining a time limit while answering Reading Comprehension Class 10 MCQs Questions with Answers so that it would be useful in. CDC defines Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) as a condition where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or.

MCQ esophagus - Dysphagia, Esophageal perforation, TEF, anatomy of esophagus. The flashcards below were created by user surgerymaster on FreezingBlue Flashcards . Causes of dysphagia? Progressive dysphagia - AchalasiaQ • SclerodermaQ • Peptic strictureQ • CarcinomaQ. Intermittent dysphagia - • Lower esophageal ring (Schatzki's ring)Q. Paige Snider, Simon J. Conway, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, 2011. B Tetralogy of Fallot. TOF is the most common cyanotic CHD and the most common cause of the blue baby syndrome.Approximately, 9-14% of babies with CHDs will have TOF (American Heart Association, 2010; www.heart.org).In TOF, an anterior placement of the conotruncal septum results in unequal. b. Blue c. Green d. Royal blue 8. Phylecten is due to: a. Endogenous allergy b. Exogenous allergy c. Degeneration d. None of the above 9. A recurrent bilateral conjunctivitis occurring with the onset of hot weather in young boys with symptoms of burning, itching, and lacrimation with large flat topped cobble stone papillae raised areas i

250+ TOP MCQs on Adverse Effects of Modern Agriculture on

11.Commonest cause of deafness in childhood is a) ASOM b) CSOM c) deaf-mutism d) foreign body Ans: b. 12.Otosclerosis is associated with all except a) conductive deafness b) common in males c) Mostly affects stapes d) Run in families Ans: b. 13.Common cause of facial palsy is a) Bell's palsy b) Mastoid surgery c) Guillian Barre syndrome d. B. Is contraindicated for facial burns due to skin pigmentation from oxidation of silver when exposed to the atmosphere. C. Causes renal impairment due to silver toxicity. D. Causes anaemia commonly seen in burns due to direct bone marrow depression. E. Contains silver sulfadiazine 5% Answer: B With respect to abdominal aortic aneurysms A Blue baby syndrome refers to the bluish appearance of body. Blue baby syndrome can occur due to multiple reasons. It is also believed to be caused by the consumption of high nitrate content in water which leads to decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of haemoglobin, particularly among children Mcq in cardiology 2015 magdi sasi. 1. Cases in cardiology DR.MAGDI AWAD SASI CCU 7TH OCTOPER HOSPITAL BENGHAZI LMB—BENGHAZI UNIVERSITY. 2. A 55-year-old man with a history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and current smoking presents with a 2-month history of progressively worsening chest pain on exertion Tay-Sachs is a mutation at the alpha-subunit locus on chrom. 15 for hexosaminidase A (prevelent disease among Jews). infant appears normal at birth, s/s start at ~6months, vegetative state after 1-2yrs, death by 2-3yrs. Clinical Features: mostly dominated by the effects on the CNS, ANS, and retina

CBSE Class 12 Biology Principles of Inheritance and Variation MCQs Set A with answers available in Pdf for free download. The MCQ Questions for Class 12 Biology with answers have been prepared as per the latest 2021 syllabus, NCERT books and examination pattern suggested in Standard 12 by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. Multiple Choice Questions for important part of exams for Grade 12 Biology and if. 19. Excess fluoride in drinking water is likely to cause: (a) Blue baby syndrome (b) Fluorosis (c) Change in taste and odour (d) Intestinal irritation. Ingestion of excess fluoride, most commonly in drinking-water, can cause fluorosis which affects the teeth and bones e. One adverse reaction to infusions of vancomycin is the blue man syndrome 11. Regarding mechanisms of antiviral drug action a. blockage of viral uncoating is caused by rifampicin b. Zidovudine is a protease inhibitor c. Amantidine blocks viral DNA packaging and assembly d. Indinavir is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor e a. Down's syndrome b. Ehlers-Danlos' syndrome c. Marfan's syndrome d. Usher's syndrome e. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis 38. In acquired syphilis: a. Interstitial keratitis is a recognised feature b. The infection is most infectious in the secondary stage c. Causes secondary uveitis d. Treatment is with procaine penicillin e

Multiple Choice QuestionsFormation of nonfunctional

Blue baby syndrome is caused by pollution b

localized or coalescing pseudomembrane can occur in an y portion of the respiratory tract. The pseudomembrane is characterized by the formation of a dense, gray debris layer. composed of a mixture. The following statement is FALSE with respect to the Serotonin Syndrome (CHOOSE ONE) A. It may be caused by a single therapeutic dose of an SSRI B. It typically evolves over several days C. It may be associated with the use of herbal medicines while taking an SSRI D. Clonus and hyperkinesia are important diagnostic signs E causes dysplasia of the epithelium which may eventually become keratinise; the goblet cells may increase due to chronic irritation from dry eyes; in Sjogren's syndrome, there is lymphocytic infiltration of the lacrimal and accessory glands 6. a.F b.F c.T d.F e.F. Merkel cell carcinoma MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS: OPHTHALMOLOGY (FOR MBBS FINAL PART I) EYELIDS, CONJUNCTIVA, CORNEA AND SCLERA . 1.Distichiasis is: a. Misdirected eyelashes b. Accessory row of eyelashes c. Downward drooping of upper lid d. Outward protrusion of lower lid ANSWER: B . 2. Band shaped keratopathy is commonly caused by deposition of: a. Magnesium salt b.

Blue Baby' syndrome is because of drinking water with

Lewy body dementia causes a progressive decline in mental abilities. People with Lewy body dementia might have visual hallucinations and changes in alertness and attention. Other effects include Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms such as rigid muscles, slow movement, walking difficulty and tremors Basic function of cell membrane contributes in. (a) regulating the flow of material into and outside the cell. (b) maintaining the cell shape and size. (c) controlling all cellular activities. (d) storing cel material. Ans. a. 45. Model known as fluid mosaic has similarity to the Roberts on model in

Blue baby syndrome: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

  1. a. RBC will brust due to endosmosis. b. RBC will constrict due to exosmosis. c. Blood will coagulate due to water pressure. d. Nothing will happen. In saline water bottle, 0.9% concentration of salt water is present which is isotonic with blood. If the blood is mixed with pure water, the RBCs increase in volume and brust. This is called as.
  2. Over the past few days in our classes we have been able to cover some of this topic. Take up the quiz below on bone pathology and see how much you understand about the features and diagnosis for the said diseases. Upgrade and get a lot more done! 1. A 56 year old post-menopausal woman complains of bone fractures
  3. 20)What disease can be caused by smoking? A. The disease that can be caused by smoking is Emphysema. B. The disease that can be caused by smoking is Bronchitis. C. The disease that can be caused by smoking is Alveolitis. D. The disease that can be caused by smoking is Diabetes. Ans: A . 21)Labored breathing from lying down is? A. apnea B. hyperpne
  4. 2. It is called brown air and grey air. 3. It causes blue-baby syndrome. 4. It is formed in traffic congested cities where warm condition and intense solar radiations are present. Q 232: 71 %
  5. Share on Pinterest Peripheral cyanosis causes the extremities to turn blue. Image credit: WaltFletcher, (2013 June 3). All organs and tissues of the body need oxygen to carry out their functions
  6. utes only
  7. c. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secreting pituitary tumours cause a syndrome of cortisol excess that can lead to exaggerated vertical growth in adolescence. d. Growth hormone defi ciency is a recognised feature in adult patients presenting with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma. e

There is an excess of iron in the body; He is in renal failure; ANSWER Clinical History (continued): A chest radiograph shows bilateral pleural effusions, pulmonary edema, and cardiomegaly. Abdominal CT confirms hepatomegaly. He undergoes a liver biopsy, and the microscopic appearance of a biopsy specimen stained with Prussian blue is shown Raynaud syndrome can develop, especially in the digits of the hands and feet, secondary to stress, cold, or vibratory stimuli . This condition is caused by sudden onset of vasospasms of the fingers and toes. The vasospasms cause the digits to tingle and the extremities to turn red, blue, or white in color Dark yellow or orange urine can be caused by recent use of laxatives or consumption of B complex vitamins or carotene. Orange urine is often caused by pyridium (used in the treatment of urinary tract infections), rifampin, and warfarin.. Green or blue urine is due to the effect of artificial color in food or drug. It may also result from medications including amitriptyline, indomethacin, and. A) Any level of lead in the body is considered to cause serious toxicity. B) Tolerance to lead develops with continuous exposure. C) Lead retention by the body is cumulative Cushing's syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body makes too much of the hormone cortisol over a long period of time. Cortisol is sometimes called the stress hormone because it helps your body respond to stress. Cortisol also helps. maintain blood pressure. regulate blood glucose, also called blood sugar. reduce inflammation

Recently, the Blue Baby Syndrome or methemoglo - GKToda

  1. MRCOG PART 1 PRACTICE MCQ. 1. 1. True for aortic malformation A Patent ductus arteriosus B Coarctation of aorta C Double aortic arch D Abnormal origin of subclavian artery E Patent foramen ovale 2. Embryonic period is A 4-8 weeks B Period of organogenesis C When major malformation to the embryo can occur due to exposure to teratogen D Growth.
  2. Colour blindness can be simply defined as trouble in seeing or identifying colours like blue, green and red. There are some rare cases where a person cannot see and identify any colours at all. A person with this syndrome also finds difficulties in differentiating the colours with shades. This syndrome is also called a colour vision problem or.
  3. Blue discoloration of the peri-umbilical area due to hemoperitoneum in acute pancreatitis is called Cullen's sign. Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA) is a cardinal feature of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The most important aspect of handwashing is friction. Drugs used to decrease gastric motility are Anticholinergics. Abnormal dilation of the spermatic vein is known as Varicocel
  4. midbrain shows the area involved in Benedikt syndrome (blue). Figure 6. Axial T2-weighted image (3 T) at the level of the midbrain shows the area involved in Claude syndrome (blue). Claude Syndrome.—Claude syndrome is caused by infarction of the dorsomedial aspect of the midbrain due to occlusion of the small perforat
  5. Wilson's disease is a rare inherited disorder that causes copper to accumulate in your liver, brain and other vital organs. Most people with Wilson's disease are diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 35, but it can affect younger and older people, as well
  6. The leading cause of computer vision syndrome is by harmful blue light rays. Blue light rays are high energy visible light (HEV) that is emitted from the sun, LED light and all our digital screens. Blue light rays are one the most vicious rays as whenever we use our screens, the rays directly penetrate the retina of the eyes and cause instant.
  7. Sickness absence and permanent disability due to MSDs . MSDs are the work-related health problem with the highest impact on sickness absenteeism in Europe; 39% of total sickness absence of 2 or more weeks is due to work-related MSD symptoms (in comparison, 19% of total sickness absence is due to stress, depression and anxiety). MSDs are als

Actinomycosis is a rare subacute to chronic infection caused by the gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria, Actinomyces. The infection is usually a granulomatous and suppurative infection. The chronic form has multiple abscesses that form sinus tracts and are associated with sulfur granules What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)? IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a. Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as 'brittle bone disease'. It is a congenital defect of bone formation. Clinical findings include multiple pathologic fractures (often child abuse suspected), blue sclera due to thin scleral collagen revealing the underlying choroidal veins and deafness due to fracture of bones in the middle ear Carotid body tumour as a reversible cause of recurrent syncope. Published in 1984. Available from: Else T, Greenberg S, Fishbein L. Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndromes. Published in 2008. Available from: Sajid MS, Hamilton G, Baker DM. A multicenter review of carotid body tumour management. Published in 2007

HEMATOLOGY MCQ - Exercise 7 NatBoardMCQs

  1. Most people with cryoglobulins have no symptoms other than elevated levels on specially ordered lab tests. When symptoms are present, they are most commonly fatigue, joint pain, numbness or weakness, and a particular rash called purpura that looks like red spots or purple bruises, usually over the lower legs
  2. Access and Discuss these Multiple choice questions for various competitive Exams and Interviews. 'Blue Body Syndrome' is caused due to_____ Due to deforestation the pure air that we intake became less in its availability
  3. It may appear blue due to thinning, and sometimes the contents of the eye ball can bulge out, - Cataracts - can be caused by inflammatory processes within the eye, but also can be caused by the steroid eye drops used to treat this inflammation
  4. Filariasis is caused by worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Dengue fever is caused by arbo virus. 31. The 'blue baby' syndrome results from (a) excess of TDS (total dissolved solids) (b) excess of chloride (c) methaemoglobin (d) excess of dissolved oxygen. Answer and Explanation: 31. (c): Blue baby syndrome is used to describe newborns with cyanotic.

Video: Flashcards - MCQ Esophagus - Achalasia, Scleroderma

most likely cause of this patient's signs and symptoms? a) Craniopharyngioma b) ushing's disease c) Empty sella syndrome d) Nonsecretory chromophobe adenoma e) Sheehan's syndrome Q.23) A 35-year-old male presents with a 0.3-cm flat light brown lesion on his left fore-arm. The lesion is excised, and microscopy re Biology Multiple Choice Questions - Set 05. Biology objective question. 1.Which is the biofertilizer ? A) Compost Water is work in the body due to oxidation of fat C) it has the water cyst in the walls of lumen of stomach D) All of the above blue eyes or black eyes depending on the which particular pigments? A) Pupil B) Cornea C) Iri Excess fluoride in drinking water is likely to cause: (a) Blue baby syndrome (b) Fluorosis (c) Change in taste and odour (d) Intestinal irritation Typhoid and Jaundice are caused due to a) Air.

Human Body MCQs - MCQs Chai

  1. C Loss of 25% or more of the vertebral body height also is a marker of anterior column instability D A Flexion Teardrop fracture is Unstable. There is disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament with a fracture of the antero-inferior portion of the superior vertebrae. A - 3mm, 5 in children, B True (Tintinalli) central cord syndrome excep
  2. The heritable disorder fragile X syndrome, a major cause of mental retardation, is caused by: A production of enzymes that break the phosphate backbone. B UV light. C duplication of multiple three-nucleotide repeats. D presence of an extra X chromosome in the sperm or egg
  3. A bruise happens when a traumatic impact causes injury to the small blood vessels in your skin, causing blood to leak into the area. The purple/red color is from the bleeding in the area of the trauma. Applying ice/cold to the area as soon as possible after the injury can decrease the size of the bruising
  4. s and Minerals, Cell Theory etc to help you prepare with a wide variety of questions. Q1. Match List-I and List-II and select the correct answer by using the code given below—. List-I List-II A.Vita
  5. MCQs on Oral Pre-cancer and Oral Cancer - Oral Medicine and Radiology # The current gold standard for predicting the malignant potential of the precancerous lesions is the: A. presence & degree of dysplasia B. presence of candidal hyphae C. presence of red areas in the lesion D. site of the lesions # Which of the following viruses is not.
  6. A 67-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department because of severe chest pain four hours after undergoing outpatient endoscopy and dilatation of an oesophageal stricture caused by reflux. Which of the following is the most likely cause of these symptoms? A) Oesophageal perforation. B) Mallory-Weiss syndrome. C) Myocardial infarctio
  7. cardiogenic shock causes symptoms amp treatment chapter 8 lesson 11 transcript, sepsis is an acute life threatening condition characterized by organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated immune response to infection the previously widely used term systemic inflammatory response syndrome is now considered outdated because its criteria were too.

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  1. ation pattern. Multiple Choice Questions form important part of competitive exams and NEET exam and if practiced properly can help you to get higher rank
  2. Turner syndrome affects approximately 1 in 2500 live female births and is a common cause of miscarriage (up to 10%). It affects 3% of females conceived but only 1% survive to birth. Turner syndrome develops when there is only one entire functional X chromosome. In approximately 50% of patients there is a single X chromosome ie 45,X
  3. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, or most commonly known as POTS. POTS is a condition that severely affects the blood flow in the body. It is a widespread medical condition. Around 1 - 3 million Americans suffer from..
  4. WHY? Caloric intake is extremely high due to burn damage. Circumferential burns are dangerous! Watch for compartment syndrome in the extremities: Distal extremity pulse is absent or weak, cool to the touch, abnormal color (white, blue, black), or has a sluggish capillary refill; If located on the chest, watch respiratory status
  5. Cardiology MCQs Which of the following is an innocent murmur? Gibson's murmur Roger's murmur Still's murmur Dock's murmur Correct answer: 3. Still's murmur Still's murmur was described by George Frederic Still in 1909. This is a low pitched murmur heard in the lower left sternal area. It is best heard with the bell of the [
  6. us) syndrome, is a chromosomal condition that results when a piece of chromosome 5 is missing. Infants with this condition often have a high-pitched cry that sounds like that of a cat. The disorder is characterized by intellectual disability and delayed development, small head size (microcephaly), low birth weight, and weak muscle tone.

e) Eisenmenger syndrome 40. The following statements are true or false: a) starvation is characterised by loss of lean muscle mass b) low zinc levels cause insulin resistance c) L-amino acids alone are required for protein replacement d) a normal adult requires 40-50 g of protein/24 hours e) glucagon secretion is the prime response to trauma 41 Since adrenal adenomas typically cause atrophy of the contralateral adrenal gland, replacement of adrenal steroids is usually required. Treatment should be continued: A) empirically for 6 months. B) empirically for 12 months. C) until the adrenal axis is demonstrated to be recovered. D) until the patient develops cushingoid symptoms White coat syndrome is a condition in which your blood pressure is high at the doctor's office, often due to stress or anxiety; but your blood pressure reading is normal in other settings. That being said, a condition like masked hypertension is about 16 times more common than white coat syndrome, according to research from 2016 II. Multiple Choice Questions (Type-II) In the following questions two or more options may be correct. 13. Which of the following conditions shows the polluted environment. (i) pH of rain water is 5.6. (ii) amount of carbondioxide in the atmosphere is 0.03%. (iii) biochemical oxygen demand 10 ppm. (iv) eutrophication. 14 Trisomy 18, also known as Edwards syndrome, is the second most common trisomy behind trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).It occurs in 1 in 5,000 live births and it is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 18 and similar to Down syndrome.It is seen more commonly with increasing maternal age

The disease caused by HIV is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) (51) Ans: Milk is turned into curd by bacteria. Curd is made from milk in following steps: 1> Milk contains a sugar called lactose. Lactobacilli bacteria convert the lactose sugar into lactic acid. 2> This lactic acid then converts milk into curd Brittle Cornea Syndrome. Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by the progressively thinning of the cornea, early-onset progressive keratoglobus or keratoconus (protrusion and thinning of the cornea), nearsightedness, hearing loss, and blue sclerae As a result, oxygen is not available to various parts of body leading to their bluish appearance. This disease is called 'blue baby syndrome' or methaemoglobinemia. Blue baby syndrome can occur due to multiple reasons. Excess fluorine in drinking water causes neuromuscular disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and stiffness of bones and joints