Do musket balls rust

Balls - Fantastic prices on Ball

It appears a reddish brown and rusted just as iron would, but has no magnetic properties. Lead typically oxidizes white. Did a little research and found that lead musket balls do appear this way if they've been in the proximity of pine or cedar trees. This was dug between and pine and a cedar in my mothers front yard I think if it was a newer steel ball there would be some rust. There was no rust at all, just a lot of pitting as the pics show. Can anyone help give a difinitive yes or no if this is really a musket ball? Thanks for looking. Attached Images _____ X-Terra 705 & White's DFX #2 04-14-2013, 01:52 AM. How fast do musket balls travel? The velocity is a factor of powder charge, barrel length and weight of the ball. Round balls have a disproportionate weight increase as their diameter increases, thus jumping from a 0.495″ at 179 grains to a 0.535″.. Musket balls are the types of projectiles that are fired from muskets. Before they were loaded down the muzzle, they were usually wrapped in paper or cloth, to keep excess gas behind the barrel. They were usually made of lead. Musket balls were made by pouring molten lead into a musket ball mould and trimming off surplus lead once it had cooled. At times stone musket balls were used. The lead.

Musket ball, grape shot or other? - Friendly Metal

  1. Musket Balls are the basic type of bullet used as ammunition by guns. They have no special properties. They are used for crafting a variety of more advanced ammunition. Musket Balls can be bought from the Arms Dealer for 7 each, or 70 for 1000 rounds. They can also be obtained from Shadow Orbs and Crimson Hearts (along with a Musket or The Undertaker), or from a Present (along with a Red Ryder.
  2. Musket balls are one of the earliest forms of projectiles that were fired from muskets and rifles
  3. Failure to keep your musket clean, dry, and lubricated will quickly lead to pitting from corrosive gun powder, rusting from the weather, and extra wear due to added friction. After each battle in an event (series or weekend of battles), use a pick & pan brush and clean towel to remove powder residue from lock, stock, and barrel
  4. Accuracy was something of a relative term when it came to Napoleonic era musketry. On the whole, as Dave Hopking points out, under ideal conditions the expected % of hits was at best only fair even with a target representing a company front in lin..

Could this be my first musket ball? - Friendly Metal

  1. The metal had the appearance of rust, and quite a bit of it. David Bennetts, one of the friendly Gun Techs here at Brownells, offered a suggestion on how to create the appearance of holster wear and how to tone the rust look down
  2. Weapons are key to survival as they provide the player with basic offensive and defensive capabilities. Players may find weapons in Airdrops and Attack Helicopters, andcan also craft them after gathering all the required resources for each weapon. Weapons in Rust have a variety of different applications in different scenarios. Some weapons favor up-close action, whereas others may perform.
  3. We do not have a single muzzleloader that will not shoot 3 shot groups at 100 yards of 1.5 and better. Considering our collection includes a CVA that boasts more rust than barrel, that's saying a lot for the potential accuracy of a muzzleloading rifle when loaded properly with match quality bullets
  4. Famous Small Arms: The Brown Bess Musket. The Brown Bess was a famous firearm that has had a very long service history. This ubiquitous weapon officially served various divisions of the British military between 1722 and 1838 and was still used in many parts of the British Empire long after that. American troops used them against British forces.
  5. Lead does not form reddish oxides --- rust --- as can clearly be seen on the Naseby projectiles. If Andy can't tell the difference between red iron rust and white lead oxide then he is clearly not competent to be editing here. Iron was not used for musket balls for any number of reasons, including the difficulty of making a consistently-sized.

How fast do musket balls travel? - Quor

Your musket is a mix of old and made to look old parts most likely put together in the Khyber Pass region to sell to some unsuspecting tourist. The brass colored material near the breech is where the rust pits were filled with braze The photo's are the musket balls I dug out of the bank. Seems their is hundreds of the things in that area, so much that they are no value to the local historians or museums as they have so many already. For me it made my year and these balls remain one of my most savoured treasures A smoothbore is very similar to a rifle, but unlike a rifle, there are not grooves running down the length of the barrel (called rifling, hence rifle!). This allows the weapon to fire musket balls or shot (a shotgun is an example of a smoothbore gun)

Yes, the musket balls are packed in a sulfur resin which was to hold them in place while the cylindrical forming tube for the powder charge could be cast, and latterly filled with powder for the fuze train. In the table for canister-shot, the Ordnance manual stipulates that the 12 pdr mountain howitzer, used .69 caliber musket balls Musketeer with a matchlock musket. Matchlocks: In the 16th and early 17th centuries, European nations gained a foothold in the New World.The gun of choice, that which paved the way for complete dominance of a native population, was the matchlock.. Lock meaning the mechanism that fired the gun and match for the system of igniting it Brown Bess is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore flintlock Land Pattern Musket and its derivatives. The musket design remained in use for over a hundred years with many incremental changes in its design.These versions include the Long Land Pattern, the Short Land Pattern, the India Pattern, the New Land Pattern Musket and the Sea Service Musket you are bidding on a original as issued civil war ball puller this screwed on the end of the ram rod to remove unfired round from the musket barrel it in nondug and only has surface rust great for display with any .58 caliper civil war musket The problem is that round balls slow down so fast out at 100 yards hat the drop acclerates beyond what a conical will do. A 570 round ball, at 100 yds, has lost nearly 55 % of it initial energy. At 125 yds about 60% At 150 yds it is dropping like a rock

Musket ball Gun Wiki Fando

Lead musket-balls by comparison you can just toss into a box with no worry about transport damage, store it in a damp moldy cellar or use them as ship ballast. Lead and tin do not rust, damaged musketballs can easily be recycled and remoulded. You can quickly and simply convert lead shot into a different calibre, need more cannon balls From examination of 70 musket balls found on British campsites (Calver 1928:120), it appears Revolutionary War-vintage Brown Bess musket balls varied from 0.687 to 0.700 caliber, with an average caliber of 0.694, and a weight of 1.14 oz. The difference between musket ball and barrel diameters was called windage

Others argue that mass-produced weapons of the time were coated in brown varnish on metal parts as a rust preventative and on wood as a sealer (or in the case of unscrupulous contractors, to disguise inferior or non-regulation types of wood) The Bolt Action Rifle is a high powered, accurate rifle. It is a high end gun capable of accurate shots from long distances and is commonly regarded as the standard sniper rifle of Rust. The Bolt Action Rifle holds 4 rounds of 5.56 Rifle Ammo at a time, and has a very high damage output. It is very rare to find and expensive to craft. When coupled with a 4x Zoom Scope, the Bolt Action Rifle.

Musket Ball - The Official Terraria Wik

The weapon in common use during the Napoleonic Wars was the musket. The British musket, commonly known as the Brown Bess, was the weapon with the longest service life (over all its variants) of any firearm in history. It was first introduced in 1707 as the Long Land Pattern, and was phased out in the late 1830s when they were replaced with a percussion cap musket. 1 Origins of the Nickname 2. Originally chambered for the .54 ball, the rifle underwent a modification in 1855 to accept the .58 Minie ball, a French development which had proven successful in Europe's Crimean War (1853-1856). The .58 Minie a standard upon its introduction for the American Army and the existing stock of Model 1841s were reworked to support it The easiest way to tell if it's steel is to touch it to a magnet and see if it sticks. Lead is NOT attracted to a magnet. I would say that if you found 20 musket balls caught in the floor boards of a barn and they were pitted and covered with rust what you actually found was where a bearing failed and spilled all the balls onto the floor of a. There is some specks of rust visible to the naked eye. I have never purchased a used musket before so I don't know if this would be considered normal for the age and is nothing to worry about or I should be upset because all of my other guns have zero rust or pitting. I'm not sure how smooth these barrels were to begin with Rust is the archenemy of a firearm, and this is especially true for muzzleloading weapons. The black powder or powder substitute used to fire the ball from a muzzleloader is of high potassium salt content, which in turn sucks moisture from the air and absorbs water. This will cause rust and pitting inside the barrel.

Methods: A 0.58 caliber rifled musket using Minié balls and a 0.30 caliber Krag-Jorgenson rifle using full metal jacketed bullets were fired into calibrated 10% ordnance gelatin blocks at a distance of 3 meters. Measured parameters included maximum temporary cavity, muzzle velocity, and the permanent track Find out the actual make and caliber of the musket before trying to purchase balls for it. As a general rule, Revolutionary War (and before) muskets were usually .75 caliber for the British (Brown Bess), and .69 caliber for the French (Charleville). A common civilian caliber for smoothbores was .62 caliber

After a long time spent on Earth, however, the iron metal in the meteorite will turn to rust, leaving the meteorite a rusty brown. This rusting starts out as small red and orange spots on the surface of the meteorite that slowly expand to cover more and more of the rock. Inspect the inside of the rock for small balls of stony material Inside the museum, Mr. Wille unpacked his boxes, displaying items discovered around the Pequots' homeland: George Washington inaugural buttons, musket and cannon balls, a gold ring. Wood Musket Tompion - .58 caliber musket tompion, used to keep dirt & water from entering the barrel, the size is 2 3/4 long and 14.50 MM in diameter. Bannermans of New York Surplus. - Price is $ 65.00 plus shipping and insurance. Item - R-31-120 800-238-6785 (orders ONLY) Outside of the U.S.: 1-731-885-0700 Information Line: 1-731-885-0700 Phone/Fax Hours. MON-FRI 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. CS Yup. Black powder, wadding and a really old musket ball. Safely removed. All the players Cleaned and reassembled Right side. Cleaning consisted of 0000 steel wool and transmission fluid on the barrel followed by several rubdowns with Croyl (good stuff, stinky). Wood just got a Kramers feeding

How to Identify Revolutionary War Musket Balls Synony

Hunt and tartget shoot with round ball or shot. Antique Firearms. US Model 1842 Musket $800 SOLD. Harpers Ferry dated 1849 with bayonet, well used with poor bore but displays well. Bicentennial-era Japanese Bess, near new, clean with no rust, blond wood, great sparking, right out of the 1970's! 1766 Charleville, Japanese $800 SOLD ball-screw, tumbler, and hand-spring punch of model 1861. NOTE: The rules for dismounting and reassembling the rifle-musket model 1855 will apply to the model of 1863 by omitting the band-springs and the parts of the lock that apply to the Maynard primer Identify the metal composition of your ball. Civil War cannonballs were manufactured from cast-iron and, on very rare occasions, lead. Other metals like steel, brass and copper, while common in modern artillery, were not used during the Civil War. Weigh the ball. Compare the weight of the ball to a weight-to-volume chart for cast-iron

Location. Pisgah Forest, North Carolina. Dec 28, 2020. #1. A couple of weeks ago, I won two lots, at auction, of Alamo battlefield relics from a 2008 dig. Along with some recognizable items (rifle and musket balls, buttons, shoe buckles and pottery) there are these metal relics, which I am hoping a few can be identified as to what they are The flintlock musket weighed between twelve and eighteen pounds, and was about four to five feet in length. The older matchlock muskets were usually slightly longer and heavier. Although the standard muzzle loaded musket had a smooth-bore barrel, some muskets used a rifled barrel which greatly increased there accuracy at longer range Rose was so mad that he lit the fuse on an already loaded swivel gun, a small mounted canon filled with musket balls, and fired at the boat. Every ball went through the cargo box of the boat. this is a gently used lyman.490 single cavity round ball bullet mold with handles. for casting lead.50 cal. muzzleloader roung balls. works fine. ask any questions you may have before bidding. look closely at the photos to determine the description and the items true condition before bidding 2 minutes ago. #1. I have an original musket marked Danzig 1832, percussion, end of bore measure about .720, smoothbore. It looks like it was made as a percussion gun, but may be a very good conversion. barrel about 41 inches long. it appears to have a load stuck inside. It has been there a LONG time as there is a lot of rust and debris on top.

Charleville Musket Firing and Cleanin

The bore of the musket is only in about FAIR condition. It is very dirty and heavily pitted along its entire length. A good scrubbing might improve the bore to good, by removing the centuries of dirt, crud and rust that have accumulated in it. Only the shadow of the bayonet lug remains on the top of the barrel, 2 from the muzzle 40000 - FlintLock Musket 40001 - Lead Musket Ball 40002 - X 40003 - Long Bow 40004 - Arrow 40005 - Bow Barrel 40006 - Recurve Bow 40007 - MatchLock Musket 40008 - MatchLock Shooting Stick 40009 - Cannon Barrel 40010 - Cannon Ball 40011 - Bayonet 40012 - WheelLock Pistol 40013 - FlintLock Pisto T/C's All Natural Lube 1000 Plus Bore Butter was designed as a lube to be used with traditional patched round balls (lube the patches) and all lead conical bullets like our Maxi-Ball and Maxi-Hunters. If you are shooting sabots, DO NOT LUBE YOUR SABOTS. Sabots are designed to be shot right out of the package dry Initially, Rust was skeptical of the lead ball because of its size — a .375 caliber. That doesn't match any of the muskets Lewis and Clark were known to have, but they also carried private.

LYMAN-GPR-54-P Lyman Great Plains Rifle, .54 caliber, 32 barrel, 1 in 60 twist for round ball, right hand, percussion, factory new in-the-box, unfired. Price: $690.99 Closeout AAT-622 Southern Longrifle , .40 caliber, 36 Colerain barrel, Chamber's flintlock, maple, brass trim, new, by Dave Minnich A couple pounds of any of the three ingredients along with a couple pounds of 50 cal. musket balls works very well for milling the ingredients into a fine powder. Weigh the ingredients for a couple pounds of powder and using the same lead balls use the tumbler to mill the powder mix I have done a quite a bit of shooting with this musket, I started out with shott because I thought it was a shotgun, and soon tried a hand at some balls. Mine shoots .54 calibre balls with no patches, I have also done a quite a bit of hunting myslef with this rifle, ifact I did today in the snow (rusts as soon as it hits) Stainless Steel Ring Cleaning Recipe. 2 cups warm water. 2 tbsp liquid dish soap. tb1234. For wedding bands or an engagement ring with gemstones, it's crucial not to loosen any of the gems from their settings when cleaning. Mix the two ingredients and lightly rub the surface of the ring with the solution

100% agree - Would recommend. $5.44 New. Go to next slide - Top Rated. 209 Primer Indiana Range & Shooting Black Powder Accessories. black powder patches. cva breech plug. Ruger Old Army In Range & Shooting Black Powder Accessories. black powder capper. breech plug Ball - Round lead projectile used most commonly in the majority of muzzleloading rifles and nearly all black powder pistols and cap and ball revolvers. Ball screw - Resembling a wood screw, this attachment threads into the end of the ramrod and is used for removing the ball from the bore. The threaded point of the ball screw digs into the soft. I went to the range a few days ago to try some loads in my caplock. Loaded up a patched round ball over some pyrodex, capped the nipple, pop-no boom. While there, I tried cleaning out the nipple and even adding a little powder through the drum. Still no joy. Brought it home and tried the CO2 method but couldn't get a seal between the nipple and device If a minie ball cannot be seated firmly on the powder charge by normal pressure of the ramrod, the ball and charge should be withdrawn by use of the ball puller. 6. Blown skirt or cleaning patch lodged in barrel. Attempt to remove a stuck patch or suspected blown minie ball skirt by careful use of the wiper. Always turn the wipe

Stump and Cam: Battle of Spring Hill

Video: How accurate were the muskets of the Napoleonic era? - Quor

Everything New Is Old Again - Antiquing A New Cap & Ball

  1. It shows oxidation and rust specking, and does have a crack in the socket near the end of the channel. A very nice example of a very early American State Issued military musket, complete with bayonet. Ready to research and display! Specifications (Musket)-Year of Manufacture: circa 1797 Caliber: .75 Cartridge Type: Ball and Powde
  2. Rust-Oleum® Touch-Up Paint creates a durable, rust-preventive and weather-resistant finish when touching-up gutters, flashings, soffits, vent pipes, fascia and more. The long lasting formulas match industry standard colors and are engineered with a high output spray pattern for one coat application that lasts
  3. The EOKA pistol was a Cypriot improvised pistol produced by Greek Cypriot guerrilla organization EOKA. This pistol was home-made by a member of EOKA during the Cyprus Emergency in the 1950s. It was captured or confiscated by British troops and is now housed in the Royal Armouries archives in Britain. This EOKA pistol is an incredibly basic and crude design, consisting of a 20mm shell.
  4. A musket is a large caliber, smoothbore, single-shot generally muzzle-loading black-powder firearm designed to fire one or just a few projectiles (buck & ball for example). A rifle is a weapon with a rifled barrel, designed to fire a single projectile that is stabilized by the spin imparted by the rifling

Weapon Rust Wiki Fando

In the American Revolution, the principle battle longarm was the Brown Bess musket. A musket is different from a rifle because it has no rifling, so the bullet doesn't spin. The Brown Bess is .75 caliber, which is essentially an 11 gauge smoothbore shotgun, used to fire, historically, a cast .69 caliber lead ball weighing just over once ounce. The range on a Brown Bess is a couple hundred. One thing they do when they store aircraft is to block off the windows and use silica gel packs in the cabin areas to absorb trapped moisture. Sitting on a track in Kentucky this time of year can be risky with hail storms, stray musket balls, and other local Hazards (pun) Brown Bess is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore Land Pattern Musket and its derivatives. This musket was used in the era of the expansion of the British Empire and acquired symbolic importance at least as significant as its physical importance. It was in use for over a hundred years with many incremental changes in its design. These versions. Lubes, Cleaners, Protectants and Patches. We are happy to fill your order via telephone. We will tell you upfront if your parts are on hand, your total and when you can expect your package. Please be aware we are a family mail order business and we do not maintain a conventional store that you can visit. Phone 434-993-3557

If I'm getting a musket, I'm getting the bayonet too. Was quite greasy out of the box, a good thing considering these are supposed to rust relatively easy. The ramrod is in there very tight, and hard to get a grip on it with all the grease. Certainly looks cool and shiny. Will surely be a project A musket ball is more like a shotgun slug, and will bulldoze its way through with sheer weight. For comparison's sake, an M-4/M-16 fires a pointy bullet weighing 55 or 62 grains (0.13-0.14 oz) at supersonic speed, whereas a musket fires a round ball weighing something like 400-500 grains (0.9-1.1 oz) at high subsonic speed I have a Spring Field 1849 cap and ball musket. It has the US seal on the lock along with the number 131. The top tang is marked 1855 and again # ***** The barrel is rifled and of the two types of rear sights that I know of, this has the longer range one. It has rust on it, but has not been refurbished. It also has a bayonet Every musket and muzzleloader rifle, kit or parts sold by Muzzle-Loaders.com is considered primitive or antique weaponry according to guidelines provided by the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF). Title 18, U.S. Code, Section 921(a)(16) defines antique firearms as all guns manufactured prior to 1899 Weapons are key to survival as they provide the player with basic offensive and defensive capabilities. Players may find weapons in Airdrops and Attack Helicopters, and can also craft them after gathering all the required resources for each weapon. Weapons in Rust have a variety of different applications in different scenarios. Some weapons favor up-close action, whereas others may perform.

The Secret of Muzzleloader Accurac

  1. Rust will eat away at iron objects, so it's important to protect these items once found. In order for iron to rust, there has to be moisture and oxygen. Luckily, when an artifact is buried in the ground, very little oxygen reaches it. That's why some items that are 200 years old can actually be found in good condition
  2. Retrieve the nipple from the solvent can and wipe clean. Put a small amount of anti seize grease on the threads and re-install it in the breechplug or drum. Place the barrel back into the stock, locating the hooked breech into the standing breech and press the barrel/stock assembly back together. Replace the key
  3. Old West Gun Owners Knew to Keep Their Bores Clean and Powder Dry. Tending one's gun was a ritual now rarely depicted on-screen. With the demise of Wild West shows during the Great Depression, Western movies— melodrama and all—have been about the only way to see the Old West in action as it supposedly was. But one Old West movie scene.
  4. Ball Bearing Size Chart Part Number Inner Dia. Outer Dia. Width Width, Inner race 1623NSL 0.625 1.375 11 1630-2RS 0.75 1.625 0.5 1638-2RS 0.75 2 0.5
  5. RESURECTION! Finally, these masked and silently masked targets came to life. A couple of .36 Cal musket balls, several fired/splattered lead musket balls, part of a wing off of a hat-plate and a large A Artillery coat button circa (1821-1844).. a bit larger than a nickel

So i need to start with disclosing that I know nothing about muzzleloaders. So the requirements I need to meet are as follows: It must use plain lead projectiles and a muzzleloading rifle that is charged with loose black powder, loose pyrodex, or an equivalent loose black powder substitute, and ignited by a flintlock, wheel lock, matchlock, or percussion mechanism using a percussion or musket cap Firearm Discussion and Resources from AR-15, AK-47, Handguns and more! Buy, Sell, and Trade your Firearms and Gear

The rust encrusted, side hammer relic had a 39 barrel and a chipped and weathered walnut half-stock. shot, a couple of balls and a half dozen musket caps. This particular smoothbore gun had been cobbled together from parts of other guns by a French settler who died of malaria during his second year in Guiana. In desperation he placed. Barrel: Most barrels are rifled with a 1 in 66 twist. This means the ball will twist one complete revolution for every 66 inches it travels. This is best for stabilizing the flight of a patch round ball. Rifles designed for conical projectile such as a Minnie ball (or modern muzzleloaders) usually have faster twist like 1 in 25 7. do not ÒbounceÓ the musket in the ÔhalfcockedÓ position while it is suspended by the trigger. the lock mechanism will be damaged. 8. do not strike the hammer thumb with excessive force in the Òfull cockedÓ position. the lock mechanism may be damaged. 9. do not attempt to use a musket with non-functiona Musket has a 42 long barrel secured to the black walnut stock by three iron bands. Band springs are forward of the lower and center bands. All gun metal exhibits as pleasing and smooth surface with just scattered areas of light rust pitting overall. Lockplate wears a dusky, mottled dark gray patina on a smooth surface

Famous Small Arms: The Brown Bess Muske

  1. Unlike a modern high velocity rifle bullet, a large .69 caliber musket ball passing straight through living flesh, actually makes a much, much smaller wound channel and does not destroy tissue at any great distance from the path of the bullet. On the other hand, if one of the larger musket balls hits your arm or leg bones, it is likely your.
  2. I have removed rust from many axe heads in the past. I have used it on a number of other tools and it works well. The problem I have is rust in the barrel of a 45 cal CVA Mountain Rifle made in USA. I have one already and have used it at blackpowder shoots and have harvested may deer with it. It is a shooter using a round ball
  3. The rifle is iron mounted, cold brown, and weighs 14 pounds and is 45 long. It is available in .62 caliber (20 bore), .66 caliber (16 bore), .69 caliber (14 bore), .72 caliber (12 bore) and .75 caliber (10 bore). Please call 208-762-4903 for a quote as pricing is subject to change. Specifications. Wood: Curly Maple Stock
  4. The Low Expectation Guide to Clunker Gun Restoration (Some Minor Gun Restoration Advice) Neither Guns and Shooting Online nor the author assume any liability for accidents, injury, hurt feelings, disappointment, anger, or befuddlement from the use or misuse of this information!. By Randy D. Smith. A few dollars invested in some simple materials and hard work can turn an old clunker into a.
  5. The military debris included musket balls, a Baker rifle barrel, a Brown Bess bayonet with a bent tip, a bayonet tip with cloth impressions preserved by rust, a trigger plate, frizzen, frizzen spring, and gunlock part, a Brown Bess (India pattern) musket buttplate, a sword hilt similar to that of a British model 1821 light cavalry and artillery.
  6. Item Code: G2955. Specimen is an original M1816, undated musket made by Asa Waters of Millbury, Massachusetts. Likely produced for a State militia, this flintlock longarm was never converted to cap and ball. Musket is a .69 caliber, single shot muzzleloader that retains all its original parts in good condition

If you buy a used gun, you will need to do some research on how to best clean it. The basics include removing the barrel from the stock and then removing the breech plug. Then use the cleaning jag on your ramrod with hot water and soap (yes, soap and water). Hot water will make it dry faster. Then a light coating of oil will keep rust at bay 1 Beginner's Guide to Restoring Antique Firearms. 1.1 Decide What You Want to Do With the Firearm. 1.2 Get the Firearm Inspected by a Professional. 1.3 Correctly Disassemble the Firearm. 1.4 Clean the Firearm. 1.5 Restore the Finish. 1.6 Get the Firearm Repaired. 1.7 Find the Proper Ammunition A .58 Remington Revisited. Transformed Remington and Model 1866 Trapdoor, both based on the Model 1863. By the end of The War Between the States (Civil War), the U. S. military, as well as European armies realized that muzzleloading rifle muskets were obsolete. Because there were huge stocks of martial front loaders in good condition all.