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# Elements of horizontal curve

Genuine Bissell Spare Parts, Order Before 9pm For Next Day! The Parts You Want, The Advice You Need. Backed by a Price Match Promise and Easy Returns Check Out our Selection & Order Now. Free UK Delivery on Eligible Orders The horizontal curves are, by definition, circular curves of radius R. The elements of a horizontal curve are shown in Figure 7.9 and summarized (with units) in Table 7.2. Figure 7.9a The elements of a horizontal curve Figure 7.9b The equations 7.8 through 7.13 that apply to the analysis of the curve are given below

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• ELEMENTS OF A HORIZONTAL CURVE. The elements of a circular curve are shown in figure 11-3. Each element is designated and explained as follows:. PI POINT OF INTERSECTION.The point of intersection is the point where the back and for-ward tangents intersect. Sometimes, the point of intersection is designated as V (vertex).. I INTERSECTING ANGLE.The intersecting angle is the deflection angle at.
• Curves are usually fitted to tangents by choosing a D (degree of curve) that will place the centerline of the curve on or slightly on or above the gradeline. Sometimes D is chosen to satisfy a limited tangent distance or a desired curve length. Each of these situations is discussed below: Choosing D to fit a gradeline (the most common case)
• ELEMENTS OF A HORIZONTAL CURVE • (LC) LONG CHORD. The long chord is the straight-line distance from the PC to the PT. Other types of chords are designated as follows: • (C) The full chord distancebetween adjacent stations (full, half, quarter, or one- tenth stations) along a curve
• The two basic elements of horizontal curves are Curve Radius and, Superelevation Rate. General Considerations for Horizontal Alignment There are a number of general considerations which are important in attaining safe, smooth flowing, and aesthetically pleasing facilities
• curve or between simple curves in a compound curve (Figure 3-2, View D). 1.2.0 Elements of a Horizontal Curve The elements of a circular curve are shown in Figure 3-3. Each element is designated and explained as follows: POINT OF INTERSECTION (PI) The point of intersection is the point where the back and forward tangents intersect
• CIRCULAR HORIZONTAL CURVES BC =Beginning of Curve EC = End of Curve PC = Point of Curve PT = Point of Tangent TC = Tangent to Curve CT = Curve to Tangent Most curve problems are calculated from field measurements (∆ and chainage), and from the design parameter, radius of curve( R). R is dependent on the design speed and ∆

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• Guidelines to Horizontal Curves A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets y Horizontal Alignment (pg.131-234) Considerations Radius Design Speed Side Friction Factor Superelevation y Runoff y Runout Equation on pg. 13
• Horizontal alignment includes of a road comprise a series of straight lines known as tangents with the provision of curves to change direction. It also includes the design of superelevation, extra widening, set back distance, transition curve design, etc. 3.4.1.1 TANGENT
• Horizontal Curve Elements. In this video, I explain the most used elements on a horizontal curve. I also present the equations for these elements. I tried to..
• Simple Horizontal Curves • A simple circular curve is a constant radius arc used to join two tangents. Figure 1 shows the components of a simple horizontal curve. Figure 1: Components of a simple horizontal curve. Compound Horizontal Curves Compound horizontal curves consist of two curves joined at a point of tangency and on the same side o
• ary traverse. Intersecting Angle (I) The intersecting angle is the deflection angle at the PI. The surveyor either computes its value from.

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• Some of the factors that influence the location and configuration of the horizontal alignment include: Physical controls - topography, watercourses, geophysical conditions, land use, and man-made features. Environmental considerations - affect on adjacent land use, community impacts, ecologically sensitive areas
• 3.1.4 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves Sight distance on horizontal curves may be obtained with the aid of Figures 3-1 and 3-2 and Table 3-1 of this Guide and Exhibit 3-8 (1). For passenger vehicles, it is assumed that the driver's eyes are 3.5 feet above the center of the inside lane (inside with respect to the curve) an
• HORIZONTAL CURVES A curve may be simple, compound, reverse, or spiral (figure 3-l). Compound and reverse ELEMENTS OF A SIMPLE CURVE Figure 3-2 shows the elements of a simpl

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Curve Length, Radius of Curve, Tangent Distance, Long Chord, External Ordinate, Middle Ordinat Elements of a simple circular curve:- * PC = Point of curvature. It is the beginning of curve. * PT = Point of tangency. It is the end of curve. * PI = Point of intersection of the tangents. Also called vertex * T = Length of tangent from PC to PI.. B) Horizontal Curve A vertical curve is used to join two intersecting grade lines of railway, highway or other routs to smooth out the change in vertical motion. An abrupt change in the rate of grade would be either injurious or dangerous while a vehicle passing over it This Section presents definitions for the basic elements of horizontal alignment: 1. Axis of Rotation. The line about which the pavement is revolved to superelevate the roadway. This line will maintain the normal roadway profile throughout the curve. 2. Broken-Back Curves. Closely spaced horizontal curves with deflection angles in th • Coordinate vertical and horizontal alignment (see Chapter 1220). Spiral curves, although no longer used on new highway construction or major realignment, still exist on Washington's highways. Spirals were used to transition between tangents and circular curves with the horizontal curvature rate increasing from tangent to the central curve an Roadside elements such as cut slopes, guardrail, tunnels, retaining walls, bridgerail, and barriers can obstruct the view of the driver and must be properly located to ensure that proper stopping sight distance is achieved. As noted previously, other types of sight distance may control in a design Geometric Design Manual-2002 Horizontal Alignment Ethiopian Roads Authority Page 8-1 8HORIZONTALALIGNMENT 8.1 General The design elements of the horizontal alignment are the tangent, or straight section, the circular curve, the transition curve (spiral) and the superelevation section. These elements are presented in detail in the following text

CONTENTS In this paper, the following topics will be discussed: 1. Introduction 2. Curve 3. Purpose of the Curves 4. Types of Horizontal Curves 5. Simple Curve -Elements of a Simple Curve -Degree of Curve (Arc and Chord Definition) -Setting out a Simple Curve on the Ground -Simple Curve Formulas 6. Compound Curve -Elements of a Compound Curve 7. Reverse Curve -Elements of a Reverse Curve 8 A horizontal curve provides a transition between two tangent strips of roadway, allowing a vehicle to negotiate a turn at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut. The design of the curve is dependent on the intended design speed for the roadway, as well as other factors including drainage and friction. The elements of a circular curve. 2018 Elements of Design . 3-2 . Stopping sight distances may be determined directly by calculating braking distance and brake reaction distance, and adding these values together, as described in th

### ELEMENTS OF A HORIZONTAL CURVE - tpub

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN 4-4 4. Spiral Curves: Spiral curves are not used, except in special cases. For overlay or widening projects, spirals are permitted to remain. For roadways to be re-constructed, spiral curves are replaced with simple curves, unless existing property improvements or other controls make this impractical. 5 has focused on the operational and safety characteristics of horizontal curves. Whereas accident experience and vehicle operating speed have been linked to geometric elements (primarily degree of curvature), it was believed that other geometric elements and alignment characteristics may also (3). (4) ### Elements of a Simple Horizontal Curve - I AM NUMBER 1

1. curves allow for a smooth transition between the tangent sections. Circular curves and spiral curves are two types of horizontal curves utilized to meet the various design criteria. Circular Curves: The most common type of curve used in a horizontal alignment is a simple circular curve. A circular curve is an arc with a single constant radiu
2. imum radii or curve lengths for highways with horizontal curves are deter
3. R PC PT Figure 11-3. —Elements of a horizontal curve. center of the circle (O) to the PC and PT. The value of the central angle is equal to the I angle. Some authorities call both the intersecting angle and central angle either I or A. RADIUS. The radius of the circle of which the curve is an arc, or segment. The radius is always perpendicular to back and forward tangents

### Roadway Design Manual: Horizontal Alignmen

1. TAC1 = TBC2 = A1 = arc AD, A2 = arc DB are arc lengths of the circular curves. There are nine elements of a compound circular curve, θθθ12, , , , , R1 R2 T1 T2 A1 and A2 and the following formulae linking these elements may be deduced from Figure 3.1. θ=θθ1+ 2 (3.1) A11=Rθ1 (3.2) A22=R θ2 (3.3) Horizontal Curves.doc
2. Elements of a Horizontal Curve. The following terms are abbreviations and definitions you may see in horizontal curve problems. I will also be using the abbreviations for the equations listed at the end of this article. Tangent - The backward and forward tangents refer to the dashed lines circled in red below
3. Question: (Elements Of A Simple Horizontal Curve) A Horizontal Curve (shown Below) Is Designed With A 400 M Radius, And The Length Of Mis 53.59 M. The polygon St. Km. Of PI Is 0+400.00. PolygonalSt. Km Of PL 0+400.00 M R=400.00 M O Calculate The True Station Kilometers Of PC And PT
4. The horizontal curve design elements include design of super elevation, extra widening at horizontal curves, design of transition curve, and set back distance. Design Speed. The design speed as noted earlier, is the single most important factor in the design of horizontal alignment. The design speed also depends on the type of the road
5. e the level of these relationships quantitatively. Although, the relationships.
6. Horizontal Curves, Signs, and Safety Ghazan Khan, Andrea R. Bill, Madhav Chitturi, and David A. Noyce Although the safety of horizontal curves has been researched, data avail - ability and quality have been the Achilles' heel of many studies. Further - more, safety at horizontal curves has become more significant in view o

### Horizontal Alignment Civil Engineerin

1. Hi, It is observed that pavement width, at the horizontal curves, are somewhat larger than the width on the straight roads. This extra width is the result of extra widening of the pavement at the curves. The reasons behind this are as follows. The wheelbase of the vehicles is rigid and therefore while Widening of Pavement on Horizontal Curve Read More �
2. Finding the area between curves expressed as functions of y. Area between a curve and the ������-axis. Horizontal area between curves. Practice: Horizontal areas between curves. This is the currently selected item. Next lesson. Finding the area between curves that intersect at more than two points. Horizontal area between curves
3. Horizontal curve - Elements of the Curve. GabyNam Apps Tools. Everyone. Contains Ads. Add to Wishlist. Install. Horizontal curve: It is an application created primarily to find the elements of a horizontal curve You can calculate the following: - The external - Average - Curve Length - Rope length - Tangent. Read more
4. Curves provided in the horizontal plane to have the gradual change in direction are known as Horizontal curves, whereas those provided in the vertical plane to obtain the gradual change in grade are known as vertical curves. Curves are laid out on the ground along the centre line of the work. Elements of a Curve (Fig. 11.5): Designation of.
5. 3.4.6 Transition curves: Definition and Types of Transition Curve, design of transition curve A transition curve may be defined as a curve of varying radius of infinity at tangent point to a design circular curve radius provided in between the straight and circular path in order that the centrifugal force was gradual. This i
6. horizontal curves are described below and illustrated in Exhibit 3-1. 1. Circular curves. are continuous arcs of constant that achieveradii the necessary roadway deflection without an entering or exiting transition. Circular curves are also referred to as simple curves. 2. Compound curves. are a series of two or more adjacent horizontal curves

### Horizontal Curves Elements Part 1 of 2 - YouTub

Horizontal curves play a critical role in roadway safety by providing a smooth transition between tangent sections. Because radii of horizontal curves are one of the most fundamental elements in roadway geometry design, transportation agencies, e.g., state DOTs, need to measure them to support network-level safety analysis Compound Curve - Two connecting horizontal curves in the same direction having different radii. Collector Road - Roadway linking a Local Road to an Arterial Road, usually serving moderate traffic volumes. Crash Analysis - A site specific safety review of crash data performed to identify whether or not a specific geometric design element ha

Horizontal curves occur at locations wheretwo roadways intersect, providing a gradual transitionbetween the two. The straight lines of a road are calledtangents because the lines are tangent to the curves used tochange direction. kaila marie joy d.r. turla. 4. Simple CurvesThe simple curve is an arc of a circle Circular curves are defined by radius (tightness) and deflection angle (extent). The design of a horizontal curve entails the determination of a minimum radius (based on speed limit), curve length, and objects obstructing the view of the driver. Using AASHTO standards, an engineer works to design a road that is safe and comfortable 9) List and draw three elements of a simple horizontal curve: a) b) c) 10) T/F The stationing of the PT can be correctly obtained by adding the tangent distance to the station of the PI 1 1) Which chord method was more frequently used prior to the advent of the total station Conclusion: Another type of horizontal curve is a compound curve which is consist if two or more simple curves having different radii which is connected by a common tangent and curving on the same direction. Owing to the inequality of their tangent distances, compound curves permit the fitting of a location to the topography with much greater.

Procedure of setting out the curve: (i) Locate the tangent points T 1 and T 2. (ii) Measure equal distances, say 15 or 30 m along the tangent from T 1. (iii) Set out the offsets calculated by any of the above methods at each distance, thus obtaining the required points on the curve. (iv) Continue the process until the apex of the curve is reached Horizontal alignment consists of tangents (straight sections) connected by horizontal curves (further referred to as curves) and other transition elements. Curve driving is influenced by perceptual factors, which refer to the driver's use of visual information to assess the curvature of an upcoming curve The most common type of horizontal curve is a simple circular curve; however, a spiral curve can be used to provide a gradual transition between tangent sections and circular curves. This allows vehicles to more easily transition into and out of a curve while staying within the travel lane horizontal alignment to be strongly safety-sensitive on roads in rural contexts, with horizontal curve radius having either the third or fourth largest effect of any design element for rural highways of all types

### ELEMENTS OF A SIMPLE CURVE - Engineer-Educators

• High or Low Points on a Curve • Wh i ht di t l i dWhy: sight distance, clearance, cover pipes, and investigate drainage. • At the highest or lowest point the tangent is horizontalAt the highest or lowest point, the tangent is horizontal, the derivative of Y w.r.t x = 0. • Derivinggg g the general formula gives: • X = g 1 l/(g 1-g 2) = -g 1 /r where: X is th
• Transportation Highways Horizontal Curve Calculator. Calculate the geometric properties of the horizontal curve with the given values of intersection angle, degree of curve and point of intersection. Note: Horizontal curve on the road provides a transition between two tangent strips, allowing a vehicle to take a turn at a gradual rate. Calculator
• Horizontal Curves are one of the two important transition elements in geometric design for highways (along with Vertical Curves). A horizontal curve provides a transition between two tangent strips of roadway, allowing a vehicle to negotiate a turn at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut
• Elements of a p-y curve Figure 3 Typical p-y curve and resulting p-y modulus (p,y) us, E E py E py-max p = E py. y p ult Pile deflection, y (L) /L) Pile deflection, y (L) p-py /L 2) E py-max 1. Initial slope E py-max: -Considerable scatter of reported values. -Most E py-max = k h x B -Some P-Y curves have E py-max →∞ 2. P ult.
• Horizontal Alignment requires topographic or aerial surveys. The alignment is set in terms of tangent lines connected with horizontal curves. The calculation of the parts of the horizontal curve are based on the elements of a circular curve. The radius of the curve is selected and basic equations from engineering mechanics are used to insure.

The spiral is a curve with varying radius used on railroads and somemodern highways. It provides a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple curves in a compound curve. Simple Curve CompoundCurve Reverse Curve Spiral Curve FIGURE 1. Horizontal Curves Section I. Simple Horizontal Curves Ezekiel Enterprises, LL A horizontal circular curve with a centre line radius of 200 m is provided on a 2-lane, 2-way SH section. The width of the 2-lane road of 7.0 m. Design speed for this section is 80 km per hour. The brake reaction time is 2.4 s, and the coefficients of friction in longitudinal and lateral directions are 0.355 and 0.15, respectively

Horizontal curvedepend on specific values fors a minimum radius (based on speed limit), curve length, and sight obstructions (sight distance). An increased superelevation (bank) may be required to assure safety for high speed locations with small curve radii. Designers must confirm sufficient sight distance around corners or curves in order t Adjustment to PI Location and Radii of Curves. 1. Using the Element Selection tool click on the horizontal alignment; the horizontal alignment is highlighted and all features of it will be visible. 2. Select the Second PI location and move it to a new location; see the horizontal alignment move

Compound Curves A compound curve consists of two (or more) circular curves between two main tangents joined at point of compound curve (PCC). Curve at PC is designated as 1 (R1, L1, T1, etc) and curve at PT is designated as 2 (R2, L2, T2, etc) Horizontal. Line Between Points - Creates a line between two user defined points. Simple Line to Element - Creates a line with a spiral transition to another element at zero degrees skew angle, applicable only when the To element is a curve, Offset locked at zero Elements of Design: LineElements of Design: Line Line • Line is an elongated mark that connects two or more points. • Two types of Lines • Straight Line Vertical Horizontal• Two types of Lines Structural Line: Necessary for basic Construction of the garment and fit

The highway curve is one of the most complex features on the highways. The elements or aspects of highway curves given in Table 1 are all potential candidates for study in relating highway design to safety. TABLE 1 Elements of Highway Curves Element Horizontal alignment Cross sectional Vertical alignment Other Description Radius of curvatur The curve of a line can convey energy. Soft, shallow curves recall the curves of the human body and often have a pleasing, sensual quality and a softening effect on the composition. The edge of the pool in this photograph gently leads the eye to the sculptures on the horizon. From The Getty Center Understanding Formal Analysi

### Video: Horizontal curve Formulas - YouTub

Circular curves and spirals are two types of horizontal curves utilized to meet the various design criteria. 1. Circular Curves The most common type of curve used in a horizontal alignment is a simple circular curve. A circular curve is an arc with a single constant radius connecting two tangents. A compoun How beautiful you look in your 40s when you choose the right dress The whole development space of the dress is very big, besides having good modify effect to figure bodily form, the individual temperament that still can give you adds a few minutes elegant charm. Women over 40 choose the right dress, to wear a good look, can use the following simple collocation, will never be out of date, let. ### What are the elements of a simple circular curve? - Quor

This is a video lecture on the AREA BETWEEN TWO CURVES. Derivation of the formulas in finding area between two curves are presented here. Two ways were demon.. Anime male face side view surprised expression drawing For a surprised face draw the eyebrow raised (especially the front ends) and draw the eye open wider than normal. Step 10. step 10 eye. made easy for beginners or newbies. Take your time and draw at your own pace. The new lines in each step are shown in red, so you'll know exactly what to draw next. Drawing an Anime face from a profile.

### Types of curves, Elements of Curve for Surveying in Civil

Electric Designer Radiators in Vertical & Horizontal Styles from £215 with Free P&P. Stunning Range of Mains Hardwired Electric Radiators in White, Black or Gre ELEMENTS OF A HORIZONTAL CURVE The elements of a circular curve are shown in figure 11-3. Each element is designated and explained as follows: PI POINT OF INTERSECTION. The point of intersection is the point where the back and for-ward tangents intersect. Sometimes, the poin The horizontal curve elements for the calculation are shown in Figure 1c. The curve radius can be converted to the degree of curve with Equation 2. RL 180 = (1 Horizontal curves are a common and essential element of the rural highway system, and it is essential to sign and mark them consistently to minimize curve crash risk. Curve signing and marking consists primarily of conducting an engineering study to set the curve advisory speed, posting the advisory speed if necessary, an main design criteria of a horizontal curve is the provision of an adequate safe stopping sight distance. The Types of horizontal curves are:-1.Simple Curve 2.Compound Curve 3.Reverse Curve 4.Transition Curve Simple Curve The curve which is a single arc of a circle is known as simple curve or simple circular curve. It has same magnitude of.

4_Horizontal_Curve_Setting.pptx - View presentation slides online. surveyin The sight distance available to drivers across the inside of horizontal curves is an important element in the design and review of horizontal alignment. When sight obstructions such as walls, outside curbline barriers, cut slopes, buildings, and continuous median barriers exist on th

### Horizontal Alignment - Ethiopian Roads Authorit

The four (4) types of Horizontal Curves: Simple curve. It is a circular arc, extending from one tangent to the next. Sta PI = Sta PC + T. (Simple Curve) Finding the stationing of PI: Given the stationing of PC. Sta PT = Sta PC + Lc. (Simple Curve) Finding the stationing of PT: Given the stationing of PC distance to adjacent horizontal curves. The results indicate that degree of curvature, curve length, and traffic volume must be considered when predicting the frequency of total and fatal and injury crashes on horizontal curves. The presence of a horizontal curve and degree of curvature increas tangents with a long horizontal curve (see paper by Lamm and Smith, this Record). Vertical Design Elements Tangent Segments A short tangent used between two succeeding sag vertical curves can give the impression of a crest vertical curve [Figure 3(d)] an lines as it is a Floating Element . The goal of this brief doc is to show how to convert Polylines into intelligent objects. NOTE: This is the simplified method for getting started - please see the help file and tutorials for a more complete tutorial on using more powerful tools for creating Horizontal Geometry. Floating Curve ship between the characteristics of horizontal curves and crashes and to explore effective countermeasures to prevent crashes from occur-ring on horizontal curves (6-8). Identifying where horizontal curves are located and what the geometric characteristics of the curves are is an essential and important task in solving the curve safety issue

horizontal curves is also influenced by traffic composition. Interestingly, it was observed that different vehicle class reacted differently while traversing a horizontal curve. Moreover, it was observed that the dispersion of speed had a significant impact on the accident counts at the horizontal curves The elements include tangent distance, external distance, middle ordinate, length of chord, and length of curve. In some practical problems, the radius and deflection angle are unknown and, to layout the curve, two other elements must be known. Seven cases must be solved depending on the known curve elements a vertical curve is not located near the flat cross slope of the superelevation transition. • Do not introduce a sharp horizontal curve at or near the low point of a pronounced sag vertical curve. The road ahead is foreshortened and any horizontal curve that is not flat assumes an undesirably distorted appearance TYPES OF HORIZONTAL CURVES. A curve may be simple, compound, reverse, or spiral (figure l). Compound and reverse curves are treated as a combination of two or more simple curves, whereas the spiral curve is based on a varying radius. Simple. The simple curve is an arc of a circle. It is the most commonly used Those curves that change the alignment or direction are known as horizontal curves, and those that change the slope are vertical curves. As an EA you may have to assist in the design of these curves. Generally, however, your main concern is to compute for the missing curve elements and parts as problems occur in the field in the actual curve.  GENERAL DESIGN ELEMENTS (E 300) SECTION NO. SUBJECT DATE E 310 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT Sept., 1970 E 311 Superelevation E 311.1 Side Friction Factors E 311.2 Maximum Safe Speed on Horizontal Curves E 311.3 Superelevation and Superelevation Transition E 311.4 Minimum Radius and Maximum Transition E 311.5 Design of Horizontal Curves Horizontal curve design elements used in the analysis. 4.1. Limit-state functions. Two modes of noncompliance are considered in this study. The first mode is insufficient sight distance, which means that ASD on the horizontal curve is less than SSD. ASD and SSD are given by Eq Factors related to the road infrastructure contribute to the occurrence of motorcycle accidents. This study investigates how design parameters of the existing rural two-lane road network in Norway influence the occurrence of single motorcycle accidents. The design elements considered in this study are horizontal curvature (curve type, degree of curvature, and adjacent curve requirements) and.

ge 1 Government of Nepal Ministry of Physical Infrastructure & Transport Department of Roads Planning and Design Branch Road and Traffic Unit Babarmahal, Kathmand and sag vertical curve and identifiess key elements such as the Tangent Grades (G 1 and G 2), Sag Vertical Curves. Sharp horizontal curves should not be introduced at or near the low point of pronounced sag vertical curves or at the bottom of steep vertical grades.Becaus The most frequent cause of accidents is the inconsistency of horizontal alignment elements with respect to possibility of maintaining the desired speed of travel  the PI, the curve is deleted also and the previous and next curve are recomputed by maintaining the previous and next PI. The radii of the previous and next curve are maintained. The fifth icon on the palette is Define Curve. This command defines new curves and modifies existing curve sets on a horizontal alignmen OpenRoads Survey: Horizontal Geometry 510-11 Remove Element Annotations The Remove Element Annotations command is used to remove the annotation from selected elements. In the example below, stations and curve data for a sprial elemet are visible. The levels for the stations a The effects of design elements such as horizontal and vertical curves, lane width, shoulder width, superelevation, median width, curve radius, sight distance, etc. on safety have been studied Spiral Curves Made Simple COURSE OBJECTIVE This course is intended to introduce you to Spiral Curve calculations along centerline alignments. It is assumed that you already now how to calculate simple curves and generate coordinates from one point to another using a bearing and distance. Offsets to Spiral Curves and intersections of lines with Spiral Curves will not be discussed i